Assignment: Social Cognitive Correlates

Assignment: Social Cognitive Correlates

Assignment: Social Cognitive Correlates

Child, and Expecting Their Second Child

Ryan E. Rhodes University of Victoria

Chris M. Blanchard Dalhousie University

Cecilia Benoit University of Victoria

Ryna Levy-Milne BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada

Patti-Jean Naylor University of Victoria

Danielle Symons Downs The Pennsylvania State University

Darren E. R. Warburton University of British Columbia

Objective: The onset of parenthood has been identified as a critical risk period for physical inactivity, yet limited research has examined the correlates of physical activity (PA) using theoretical models in longitudinal designs with comparison groups of couples without children. The purpose of this study was to predict PA across 12 months among cohorts of couples with and without children using the theory of planned behavior (TPB).

Method: Participants were 314 adults (102 not expecting a child, 136 expecting first child, and 76 expecting second child) who completed baseline demographics, measures of the TPB, and 7-day accelerometry, followed by assessments at six and 12 months.

Results: Hierarchical linear modeling showed some TPB relationships were moderated by parental status and gender. Most notable, time-varying covariate analyses showed perceived behavioral control and intention decreased for new mothers compared to women without children across time. PA was predicted by intention for all cohorts, and intention was predicted by affective and instrumental attitudes and perceived behavioral control for husbands and wives, whereas subjective norm predicted intention only in husbands.

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For wives, the relationship between intention and instrumental attitudes and perception of behavioral control varied by parental status, and was larger for couples without children compared to second-time parents. Overall, there was considerable coordination in slopes and intercepts among couples, yet individual cognitions were better predictors than partner cognitions. Conclusion: The findings provide helpful information for targeting PA interventions among young adults, and suggest that interventions for new mothers may require greater effort to raise the absolute values of control when compared to women without children.

Keywords: physical activity, theory of planned behavior, parenthood

There is irrefutable evidence that regular physical activity (PA) contributes to the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes,

cancer, hypertension, obesity, and osteoporosis (Warburton, Charlesworth, Ivey, Nettlefold, & Bredin, 2010; Warburton, Nicol, & Bredin, 2006). In addition to these physical health benefits, the

This article was published Online First August 5, 2013. Ryan E. Rhodes, Behavioural Medicine Laboratory, University of

Victoria, Victoria, Canada; Chris M. Blanchard, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada; Cecilia Benoit, Department of Sociology, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada; Ryna Levy-Milne, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada; Patti-Jean Naylor, School of Exercise Science, Physical & Health Education, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada; Danielle Symons Downs, Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, Pennsylvania; and Darren E. R. Warburton, School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

This research was funded through the Canadian Diabetes Association, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Ryan E. Rhodes is supported by a Canadian Cancer Society Senior Scientist Award and Give to Live, Chris Blanchard is supported by the Canada Research Chairs Program. We thank Kai Riecken, Leila Pfaeffli, Rachel Mark, Cara Temmel, and Gabriella Nasuti for the hard work of data collection and data entry during this project.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ryan E. Rhodes, Behavioural Medicine Laboratory, Faculty of Education, Univer- sity of Victoria, P.O. Box 3015 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P1, Canada. E-mail: [email protected]

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