NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

The second of this two-series course focuses on the pathogenesis and pharmacologic treatment of select nutritional diseases and disorders as well as diseases and disorders of aging, and the neurologic, sensory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, renal, and reproductive systems.  The etiology and progression of disease and disorder states and the human response to such state changes will be examined.  Student-learners are actively engaged to integrate previous knowledge to acquire and refine their understanding of disease and disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Principles of biochemistry, genetics and genomics and their relationship to pathogenesis, pathophysiology, assessment findings, lab and diagnostic data, and pharmaco-kinetics, -dynamics, and -therapeutics will be stressed. Patient-centered care, evidence-based practice, clinical decision making, and the role of the nurse in providing safe, high quality and compassionate care are emphasized- particularly as it relates to the role of the nurse in safe medication administration.

This course is designed to be taken in conjunction with Adult Nursing II. Advance your career! Learn about the specialty practice of faith community nursing and spiritual care aspects of professional nursing through resources, courses, and presentations from national & international experts. As you develop knowledge of spiritual care and strengthen your understanding of other faiths and cultures, you will also start to discover your inner self as you strengthen your personal spirituality. As a member of the Nursing Division of SCA, you will discover opportunities to find fellowship with nursing colleagues and other allied health professions such as social workers and chaplains, work with a mentor or become a mentor to increase your confidence as a healthcare provider assisting hospitals and other healthcare organizations to integrate spiritual care back into health. Be a force in moving high-quality healthcare forward and support the future of nursing practice that improves outcomes by including steps to honor beliefs and aspects of faith that influence healthcare decisions for all faiths and perceptions of spirituality.

The Nursing Division of the Spiritual Care Association focuses on the spiritual dimension of professional nursing practice including registered nurses, advanced practice and specialty practice nurses from a wide variety of hospital and non-hospital-based settings.

The Nursing Division of the Spiritual Care Association supports the advancement of the spiritual care component of nursing practice as an integral aspect of high-quality whole person care for all including the professional providing the care.Existing since 1925, University of Newfoundland is well known in Canada and across the world. Many students call this school shortly MUN or simply Memorial University. This higher educational institution has four main campuses in Canada and a huge base of libraries and research opportunities for Canadian and international scholars. The place is strong in different fields of studies, including geology, engineering, medicine, and business. Besides, Memorial University is the biggest in Atlantic Canada. More than 18,000 people come here to study from all over the world, including Nigeria and other African countries.

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The bachelor of nursing program provides you with skills that are in high demand. This program will provide you with the opportunity to explore particular areas of nursing that interest you.  As a nurse, you will help improve the health of individuals, families and communities. We prepare you to meet the challenges of health care on a global level.The Memorial University of Newfoundland was founded in 1925 as a Memorial University College. In 1943 it received the status of a university, and today it is the largest on the Atlantic coast of Canada. Memorial University was one of the first to attract students from abroad: today out of 17,000 students, almost 1,000 are foreigners. The university has more than 100 different programs in the following areas: business, art, medicine, education, computer technologies, economic studies, etc. The Marine Institute of the Memorial University of Newfoundland is also an essential part of the MUN. Its programs are recognised as one of the best in the world. The choice includes such unique specialities: shipbuilding, oceanology, navigation. The MUN has four campuses, and the main one is located in the capital of Newfoundland State – Saint John’s. The International Department of the International Student Association in the University provides international students with the necessary support, assistance in document preparation and resettlement during and after the admission. Those, whose English language level is not high enough, can take courses in English as a Second Language (ESL) for 5-12 weeks before the beginning of the course.

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A three hour flight east from Toronto or a five hour flight west from London, England, our St. John’s Campus offers old-world hospitality in a modern, cosmopolitan city. Bordering on the Atlantic, you are 20 minutes from some of the most breathtaking ocean vistas imaginable; truly an inspiring place to broaden your mind.

Along with the main St. John’s Campus, we also have the Marine Institute, located in St. John’s; the Grenfell Campus, located in Corner Brook; and the Harlow Campus, located in Harlow, Essex, United Kingdom. NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

Western Regional School of Nursing (WRSON) is part of a nursing collaborative program which is offered at three 3 locations. Western Regional School of Nursing  Corner Brook; Memorial University School of Nursing, St. John’s; Centre for Nursing Studies, St. John’s. All three locations offer the same curriculum. WRSON students complete their electives at Grenfell Campus.

The Canadian Nurses Association and its provincial and territorial counterparts agreed that, by the year 2000, everyone entering the profession should have a bachelor’s degree in nursing. Our program ensures all Newfoundland and Labrador nursing graduates will now meet this goal.These are the main Memorial University of Newfoundland admission requirements for international students, including citizens of Nigeria. You can study in Canada in 2018-2019 and save some money on tuition fees thanks to the international financial awards and scholarships (if you are lucky to get one). All the details are offered at the official MUN site, so double check everything and choose your faculty and degree program from over 100 options before applying.

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NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

This BN gives you the basics of nursing as well as additional studies in health promotion, nursing leadership, health assessment, research, and related academic areas. Your BN gives you many career and graduate study opportunities.

We offer a number of nursing experiences, including real and simulated client care experiences. The number of clinical experience hours our students complete throughout the program is among the highest in the country.

Western Regional School of Nursing has graduated more than 1,800 nurses since its first graduating class of 1971.As the role of nurses has evolved so too has the program that the school offers in partnership with Grenfell Campus. The Western Regional School of Nursing has received three seven-year gold accreditations from the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing. 

The two-year Fast Track option was first offered at Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John’s, and at Western Regional School of Nursing in Corner Brook in 2002 as an accelerated degree program. Students in this program will graduate with a baccalaureate degree in nursing after completing six semesters of study in two years. The two years of study are taken over two full calendar years. There is only one limited break in each year of this program, at Christmas.

Our Fast Track program is described as intense and challenging. Students entering this program will have a high degree of motivation and commitment to learning. The Fast Track syllabus is geared to students with well-developed university-level study skills, who perform well in high-pressure situations.

Our Fast Track program turns out highly educated, motivated, and confident nurses, with the same high-caliber training as graduates of the four-year collaborative program.

The bachelor of nursing (collaborative) program is designed to prepare entry-level nurses for careers in a variety of health care settings, as direct caregivers, educators, counselors, advocates, facilitators, coordinators of care, researchers, leaders and members of the nursing profession.

The Bachelor of Nursing (Collaborative) Program at Memorial University in Newfoundland and Labrador is a highly competitive program composed of three options: Four-Year Option, Accelerated Option and LPN Bridging Option. All options are offered at three independent schools of Nursing across the province: Memorial University Faculty of Nursing (MUNFON) and Centre for Nursing Studies (CNS) both in St. John’s; and Western Regional School of Nursing (WRSON) in Corner Brook.

The Undergraduate Nursing Admissions Office is responsible for answering Bachelor of Nursing (Collaborative) Program admission inquiries as well as coordinating the admissions process for the undergraduate Program at the three nursing sites. The Undergraduate Nursing Admissions Office works with the three nursing sites to ensure all admission objectives are met.

Up to three seats per year are reserved specifically for applicants of Aboriginal ancestry who have met the admission requirements but who are not in the top ranked candidates. Applicants wishing to be considered under this clause must check the appropriate space provided on the BN application form and provide documentation of Aboriginal ancestry.

You may apply for admission into the bachelor of nursing directly from high school by indicating bachelor of nursing (collaborative) on the undergraduate application for admission. Direct entry into the program from high school is competitive as there are a limited number of placements.

In addition to the general admission requirements, you must have completed:

  • Math 3200 or 3201 (or equivalent)
  • Biology 2201 and 3201 (or Grade 11 and 12 equivalents)
  • Chemistry 3202 (or Grade 12 equivalent)

For out-of-province applicants who do not have Grade 12 social science or modern/classical language, an additional Grade 12 science course, other than biology or chemistry must be completed.

It is strongly advised that international applicants take courses at Memorial for two semesters before applying to the bachelor of nursing (collaborative) program. Please review the admission criteria, outlined below, for current Memorial students.

If you’re seeking admission into the bachelor of nursing through transfer from within Memorial University or other accredited post-secondary institutions, indicate bachelor of nursing (collaborative) on the undergraduate application for admission.

If you’ve attended a post-secondary institution and haven’t completed the required high school courses noted above, you must complete the following courses (or equivalents):

  • Biology 1001 and 1002
  • Chemistry 1010, 1050, 1051, 1200, 1001, or 1810 (Grenfell Campus)
  • one university level mathematics course (excluding statistics courses)

Both biology courses must be taken at the same level (either high school or post-secondary), not a combination of high school or post-secondary.

You may choose to complete the following:

  • six credit hours in English critical reading and writing (CRW) courses
  • Psychology 1000
  • three credit hours in either sociology, anthropology, or archaeology
  • three credit hours in philosophy or Religious Studies 2610
  • Statistics 1510 or 2500 (or equivalent) or Education 2900
  • three credit hour elective course

Completion of non-nursing courses does not guarantee acceptance into the program. While these non-nursing courses are requirements of the bachelor of nursing (collaborative) program, they are not required to be completed before seeking admission to the program. NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

The four-year BN (collaborative) program is offered at three locations: Memorial University Faculty of Nursing (MUNFON) and Centre for Nursing Studies (CNS) both in St. John’s; and Western Regional School of Nursing (WRSON) in Corner Brook. All three locations offer the same curricula, which combines innovative teaching strategies with hands-on practical experience.

The program is accredited by the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing (CASN). This seven-year accreditation award is the highest that can be earned by Schools of Nursing in Canada.

The BN program offers a number of nursing practice experiences, including real and simulated client care experiences. By the time you graduate, you will have obtained over 1,600 hours of clinical experience; that’s the highest number of clinical hours in the country.

This is a four-year basic nursing education program leading to a baccalaureate degree in nursing. This innovative baccalaureate curriculum was developed through the collaborative efforts of all schools of nursing in the province and implemented in the 1996-97 academic year. The Bachelor of Nursing (Collaborative) Program is delivered through a consortium partnership between Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN), Western Health, and Eastern Health . It is designed to enhance the opportunities for individuals to be prepared at the baccalaureate level for entry into professional nursing practice. The same BN (Collaborative) Program is delivered at the Centre for Nursing Studies, MUN School of Nursing and Western Regional School of Nursing. A BN degree is the minimum level of education for nurses entering the profession. Students may be admitted to the program following high school graduation or, alternatively, students who already have a degree may be eligible for the Fast Track Option, available at MUN School of Nursing and Western Regional School of Nursing. NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

The BN (Collaborative) Program was awarded a seven year accreditation status by the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing (CASN) in May, 2015. This is the highest award given to a school of nursing in Canada.

The BN (Collaborative) Program is approved by the Association of Registered Nurses of Newfoundland and Labrador (ARNNL). This approval designation assures the public and students that the nursing program prepares entry-level practitioners who provide safe quality health care.

A major responsibility of nurses is to help ensure safe administration of medication by having an in-depth understanding of drug categories and how each type interacts with other drugs in the body. In this course, students explore foundational pharmacologic principles and topics, including key drug actions and interactions, effects of various categories of drugs, and pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Through case studies and other functional applications, students learn about the pathophysiology related to major health problems across the lifespan and the pharmacologic management of those problems. They examine the cellular aspects of disease, pathophysiological signs and symptoms, and dynamics of body defenses. Students also consider pathopharmacological implications in the practice of nursing.

Demand for health professionals is now higher than ever before because the society is ageing, life expectancy is longer and people’s average age is higher due to better living conditions, improved access to medical services and pharmacological products as well as improvement of hygiene. Additionally, raising the standards of hospital and medical services resulting from the need to match those of Western European countries means that the demand for health services  and, in particular, for the work of nurses is constantly growing. The number of graduates of nursing schools is too small to satisfy the demand. There is a significant deficit in nurses; according to different sources, almost 1 million nurses will have quit their jobs by 2020.

  • According to the data provided by World Health Organisation (WHO), 80 million health professionals will be needed by 2030.  As the data from February 2018 show, there is a deficit in health professionals, mostly in nurses and midwives, in the world. This group constitutes about 50% of the current deficit in health care professionals. According to WHO, the largest demand for health professionals is in the countries of Africa and south-east Asia.
  • The report of WHO entitled “Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030” shows that in 2030 the global demand for nurses will amount to almost 8 million, of which 3 million in Africa and 2 million in south-east Asia.
  • Lack of well-qualified nursing staff is also noticeable in Europe, e.g. in Germany, where there are about 35 thousand vacancies. According to  the data included in the report of Rheinisch Westfälisches Institut für  PaperWirtschaftsforschung, in 2020 84 thousand nurses will be needed in Germany. By 2030 the deficit will increase to 200 thousand. Germany is in the lead of those European countries which are looking for nurses. There was a 26% increase in job offers for nurses on the Internet in  2015 – 2017, which clearly shows that the demand for nursing staff is growing.  A growing demand has also been observed in Belgium (18%), Great Britain (17.2%) and Holland (16.9%).
  • Recently the number of job offers for nurses and midwives has increased in Great Britain. At the same time the number of candidates for these professions has dropped by 12%. According to the data provided by National Health Service (NHS), the number of nurses is insufficient. Great Britain will have to look to foreign professionals to ensure that British citizens have proper health care.
  • Similarly, the United States will have to look for health professionals. According to American Bureau of Labor Statistics, over 400 thousand new job offers will have been created by 2026.

If you are a licensed registered nurse (RN) interested in taking courses, you can apply as a nondegree student.

Requests from nondegree students are considered on an individual basis by the coordinator of student services and the dean. The specific course being requested and the student-faculty ratio within it will be considered.

students pursuing a nursing degree at Empire State College have first rights to open places in all nursing course offerings. Nondegree students are permitted to take only two of the required nursing courses prior to enrolling in the program, which are:

  • Undergraduate level: NURS 3010 Health Assessment and NURS 3015 Pharmacology
  • Graduate level: NURS 6005 Theoretical Foundations of Nursing Practice and NURS 6010 Professional Role Development and Ethics  NURS 3015 – Pathopharmacology Assignment Paper
  • Graduate level nondegree students must provide an official transcript verifying completion of a bachelor’s degree in nursing (BSN) from a regionally accredited institution prior to registration

To apply as a non-degree student, please complete the online application.

The post NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays appeared first on Health Term Papers.

NURS 3015 Essay Paper

The primary aim of teaching pharmacology to medical students is to train them on rational and scientific basis of therapeutics. Pharmacology teaching is facing a major challenge in the medical science due to constant reformation. Generally, there is a opinion that teaching pharmacology in medical schools has failed to keep in pace with the rapid changes in medical practice. Attempts have been made all over India to make teaching of pharmacology more interesting and relevant ( 2006). To make pharmacology teaching more innovative and interacting learning experience, efforts have been made by formulating new educational strategies to meet the educational objectives. Educational objectives can be evaluated by assessment procedures and timely feedback to achieve the learning goal.

In Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Pharmacology teaching comprises mostly of a series of didactic lectures using power point presentations covering general, systemic pharmacology and practical pharmacology which includes animal experiments and clinical pharmacology sessions spread over the academic year. To evaluate the student’s progress we conduct monthly internal assessment tests consisting of multiple choice questions, essay questions, short notes and ultra short notes for 3 hr time duration including model practical exams conducted twice in a year. Regular viva voce exams follow the monthly internal assessment test to develop their communication and interaction skills.

Apart from this regular schedule of assessment, we also introduced a method of assignment on classification of drugs after each system. To reinforce the learning process, we implemented weekly test on the first hour of every week based on the lectures delivered over the previous week. The test was conducted for one hour which covered various portions of the chapter in detail testing the levels of knowledge.

After completing the above schedule meticulously, at the end of the year to understand the beneficiaries’ opinion we planned to collect the student’s feedback. Currently the student’s feedback represents the primary means used by different programs to assess their methodology (Richardson B.K.2004). Feedback helps in correcting mistakes, reinforcing good performances and incorporating students view in teaching methodology. It is accepted that reviewing the teaching and evaluation methods by feedback from students and modifying of methodologies accordingly is very important for the undergraduate medical teaching. (Ruth N 2000, Victoroff KZ 2006).

Thus the present study is an effort to obtain and analyze critical appraisal on,

The student attitude toward teaching and learning pharmacology in Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Enathur, Kanchipuram.

Assessment of pharmacology teaching using student feedback.

Methods to improve the teaching of pharmacology.

NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays Materials and Methods:

A questionnaire was designed to obtain feedback and finalized after a departmental discussion with concurrence of Medical Education Unit. The study subjects were 115-second year MBBS students of 2011 batch studying in Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute, Enathur, Kanchipuram.

All the students enrolled in the study were requested to fill up the questionnaire. The study was conducted at the end of their academic year in Department of Pharmacology. A ten-item multiple choice questionnaires and an open ended question for suggestion were provided to explore the student’s opinion on teaching and learning methods imparted. The questionnaire was analyzed by two observers. The questionnaire was designed in such a way to assess the knowledge, their attitude and skills developed during their one and half year course in pharmacology. Both the theoretical and practical pharmacology practiced by different methods during their study period were evaluated from the feedback form.


Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of data. Frequency was shown as percentage.


One hundred and fifteen students of II MBBS participated and responded in the questionnaire study. Based on the pattern of studying pharmacology,48.69% studied pharmacology once or twice a week on regular basis and 34.78% opted studying only for monthly tests and viva voce exams which reflects on their regular preparation for monthly internal assessment test(TABLE-1).54.75% of students preferred lecture notes and text books as the source of studying pharmacology. NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays


Majority (87.82%) of students approved writing and maintaining classification of drugs. 53.91% have opined that the assignments had improved in better understanding about the different classes of drugs.43.47% of them have reported its usefulness to memorize and reproduce in the test and also to apply in their clinical postings.

Among the assessment methods, 54.78% of students favored monthly internal assessment test for their significant improvement in their academic performance. In the weekly test conducted, 72.17% of students found weekly lectures correlating with weekly tests, 51.30% of students mentioned that the true or false part of the weekly tests created interest.

Majority (66.95%) of students preferred regular tests in clinical pharmacology sessions when compared to the experimental pharmacology. Most (93.64%) of the students have mentioned regular viva-voce exams following monthly internal assessment test had improved their communication skills.

Among the teaching – learning methods practiced, 52.17% of students preferred theory lectures followed by clinical pharmacology sessions 46.95% and group discussions 45.21%

Feedback is defined as a response within a system that influences continuous activity or productivity of that system. In the present study on educational context, it would mean a response from the learner about the teaching learning process. Feedback is essential to find out the effectiveness of the process, the need to change it, as well as, to evolve strategy for its improvement.

From the feedback evaluation obtained, it is observed that students like to study pharmacology by regular test / viva and interactive classes so by these way students understand the subject properly (Nilesh Chavda 2011 This is very much correlating in the present study feedback results.

It was found that students preferred writing and maintaining classification of drugs throughout their academic year, which were corrected periodically by the faculty, who played the role of mentor for the given group of students to cultivate and sustain the habit. Writing classification of drugs by medical school learners has helped them to understand the different classes of drugs and also to systematically memorize and reproduce in the written test as well as the knowledge application in clinical rotations .

Students opined that monthly internal assessment test was mostly useful than the weekly written test for their academic performance in theory exams, the reason for the following may be monthly internal assessment pattern is similar to that of university examination. The weekly written test has definitely kept the students in pace with the portions being completed every week. By answering the weekly test their preparation, facing and performing monthly internal assessment had become extremely comfortable and confident . The weekly test had various parts, students considered true or false part of the weekly test has created interested in them, the fact to get such a feedback may be the chances of getting the wrong answer is only 50%. Also they have mentioned that, Match the following with extended responses have stimulated their thought process to find the correct response. The feedback also emphasized the student’s interest towards more interactive sessions on Clinical pharmacology exercises and felt it should be given regular emphasis than the animal experiments. According to Gibbs G et al, 1987 active review during the lecture, involving students in structured discussions, using questionnaires and asking them to summarize are the three most important things to be followed and practiced for a effective teaching-learning process.

To conclude though the teaching learning method implemented in the present study required a lot of strenuous hard work from the faculty particularly preparing questions, organizing test and more importantly correcting all the papers in a week period, it has created an interest in learning pharmacology among students. The feedback from learners has clearly exhibited their likeliness for the variety or different methodological approach instead of regular didactic lectures offered by the department of Pharmacology.

Walgreens in one of the largest drugstore chains in the United States. Walgreens has always maintained a simple strategy. Although the strategy changed over the years to mention newer innovations, the basic principles of the strategy have remained similar. It has become more than just your ordinary pharmacy it invest heavily in high tech store and distribution systems which drive service up and costs down, and offer an on-line drugstore web site totally integrated with other retail stores. Walgreens also have three Pharmacy Care Call Centers one in Alabama, Florida, and in Tuscan.

Choose the two (2) segments of the general environment that would rank highest in their influence on the corporation you chose. Assess how these segments affect the corporation you chose and the industry in which it operates.

I believe that the two segments of the general environment that would rank highest in influence for Walgreens are the two segments, demographic and technological. If I were to be honest, I believe that all of these segments are important to the success of a drugstore, but because the question asked for which ones I considered being the highest I chose these two. Let me go into details to explain my reasoning for choosing these two.

The reason why I choose the demographic segment is because demographics play an important role in mostly every corporation. Marketers can use the variables that make up demographics to create a demo graphic profile, which helps provide them enough information to create a mental picture of who the typical members of society are. Once these profiles have been constructed, they can be used to develop a marketing plan and strategy. The five types of demographics that corporations focus on for their marketing are age, gender, income level, race, and ethnicity.

As humans, our bodies are prone to get sick every now and then, and when it does we most likely have to rely on taking medicine to get over the illness. It does not matter if it is over the counter or prescription medicine, we just need something to rid us of the illness. That is when we most likely turn to the drugstores to purchase our medication, such as Walgreens. However, while we are there to just go get our medicine, the store has much more merchandise to offer than just that. They have stuff that touch on almost every type of demographics, from: having merchandise for different ages, having products for each gender, cheaper brands of prescription medicine for their lower income customers, and much more. Considering the five (5) forces of competition, choose the two (2) that you estimate are the most significant for the corporation you chose. Evaluate how well the company has addressed these two (2) forces in the recent past. Of the five forces of competition, the intensity of existing rivals within the industry. NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

The retail drug industry contains many companies, but the most notable are Wal-Mart, CVS, and Rite Aid. These are just a few of Walgreens’s competitors there are other stores like Kmart, Target, Publix and different grocery store pharmacy chains. Pharmaceuticals are a high demand industry, with fairly high margins. The margins are decreasing, and competition constantly adapts to changing approaches. Many competitors now choose to handle customer interaction on the web. Many people have started to do mail orders because it is cheaper for them. Also, insurance companies find it cheaper for the consumer to do mail orders then going into the actual store. The only thing is that some of the mail orders do not make it in time, which causes the consumer to still have to deal with an actual pharmacy. At Walgreens call center they have a mail order department that assist the consumer with mail orders. Walgreens have these call center to be able to assist more consumers then their competitors.

The second of the five forces that is the most significant for Walgreens would be the bargaining power of suppliers. The textbook states, “The bargaining power of suppliers refers to the ability of suppliers to raise input prices, or raise the costs of the industry in other ways-for example, by providing poor quality inputs or poor service.”(Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson p.54)The generic market has a lot more bargaining power. If a generic manufacturer decides not to sell to a particular retailer, then the stores could easily pick another generic supplier. Generic drugs have less exclusivity than prescriptions, so suppliers must give-in to the chains’ demands. There are so many medications that you once had to have a prescription for that are over the counter drugs now will hurt the prices on the generic drugs. Walgreens and other pharmacies have come up with ways that customer can save money on prescriptions by offering prescriptions savings cards for people that do not have insurance. Wal-Mart, CVS, and Target offer certain medications at discounted prices. With the same two (2) forces in mind, predict what the company might do to improve its ability to address these forces in the near future.

In the future Walgreen needs to be able to sell their medication at a cheaper price then all of its competitors. The only thing about this is that some customers have learned that some medication that are manufacturer by different companies do not work as well as others. Regardless if it is brand or generic customers will ask for medication by certain manufacturers. While trying to lower prices for consumers the pharmaceutical have to make sure that the medication is working for the consumer. Not having the most requested manufacturers could cause a business to lose business therefore you have to make sure the stock is complete with medication that people need on demand. Assess the external threats affecting this corporation and the opportunities available to the corporation. Give your opinions on how the corporation should deal with the most serious threat and the greatest opportunity. Justify your answer.

In the highly competitive prescription drug market, Walgreen’s biggest threats come from its intertype competitors. With them no longer competing just against other drug stores and pharmacies, retailers such as grocery stores and discounters are starting to increasingly proving to be quite the formidable competitors. Discounters especially, are proving an to be quite a threat when it comes to prices. The emphasis on low cost and economies of scale possible through large companies such as Wal-Mart, mean that Walgreens cannot compete against discounters and their prices.

Walgreens is also at a disadvantage compared to their retail competitors, such as Target and Wal-Mart, because retailers carry a much broader assortment with significantly more SKUs and that they also have more consumers who visit the store on a regular basis.” It is estimated that 138 million Americans shop at Wal-mart weekly and that they find it more tempting to go and fill their prescriptions there as well, so that they can meet all their needs in one place” (Lasnti, 2005). Although Walgreens itself does consist of more than just medicine, their assortment of products comes nowhere as close as Wal-Mart and other popular retailers, so they just cannot compete against them in that department.

Furthermore, Walgreens’ reliance on prescription drugs, a highly regulated and controlled entity, makes it vulnerable to changes in laws and regulation. This is exemplified by recent changes to Medicare prescription drug plans which, while on one hand made the price of prescription drugs the same for consumers no matter where they chose to purchase it, also further regulated dispensing fees thereby decreasing profit margins for shops, like Walgreens. While Walgreens has not been impacted too adversely by these changes, the aging of the Baby Boomer generation and concerns over the future of Medicare mean that further reform will be a topic of continuous debate. Under these circumstances additional modifications and reforms which may potentially 12 reduce the profitability of prescription drugs are not unexpected. Walgreens relies heavily on prescription drug sales, and dependence on a category whose regulation is mainly beyond its control leaves it vulnerable.

As for opportunities, it appears as if Walgreens greatest opportunities to increase their sales lie in changing composition of American population. With the Baby Boomer generation on the verge of hitting a significant demographic shift, they will surely impact the pharmaceutical industry more than any other. “In fact, Walgreens expected a 30% increase in demand from their senior customers’ prescriptions in years on down” (Merrick, 2006).” They had a good reason to think so since 30% of prescriptions and 42% of sales revenue from it came from seniors in 2002, and they were expected to expand up to 95 million by the time it was 2010 (“SIC 5912,” 2006). Increase for the demand of prescription drugs, which is Walgreens’ largest category and is most known for, potentially means an increase in sales and profit for the company.

Further opportunities that Walgreen has is to benefit from lies in international markets. Currently in the United States, only domestic businesses in the market have become saturated, and Walgreens will be forced to look internationally for expansion. While cultural differences and government regulations will likely prove challenging given Walgreens’ nature of its business, international markets provide significant opportunities for expansion in the market. Furthermore, there other main competitors that falls into the same category as them, such as Rite Aid and CVS, have yet to enter the international markets. Beating these competitors to reaching and entering into international markets could ensure that Walgreens stays a step ahead and remain the market leader of the three. This would also help Walgreens stay competitive against the larger chains, such as the ever popular Wal-Mart, with many of them already having a significant presence in the international market.


Merrick, A. (2006, June 21). Walgreens found way to profit drug plan. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 2, 2014 from LexisNexis Academic database on the World Wide “SIC 5912

Drug Stores and Proprietary Stores.” (2006). Retrieved February 2, 2014 from/industries/Retail- Trade/Drug-Stores-Proprietary-Store.

Hitt, M., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. (2013). Strategic Management – Concepts and Cases. Mason: Cengage Learning.

Clinical decision support tools and explanation

I would choose the CPOE process because of the built in clinical decision support. Alerts will appear when orders are entered for medications that may contain pencillin. If the patient were to be prescribed a mediciation that may cause a reaction that could result in the patients death. NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

Scenario 2

Sepsis is a serious medical condition that many times sneaks up on clinicians because the vitals are not easily monitored. To recognize this condition, a trend of vital signs is needed so if the patient is deteriorating, the clinical team is able to recognize the need to intervene rapidly. If the vital signs are captured electronically, how could the system be leveraged to assist the clinical team in knowing they need to immediately help the patient? Consider trending of results, alerting, and communication devices.

Clinical decision support tools and explanation

When the vital signs are entered for each visit when a pattern in the vital signs are detected and alert will go off in the system. The doctors will be notified by built-in alerts that vital signs are following a certain pattern that may mean there is something serious going on.

Scenario 3

A patient has Cochlear implants in both ears. She is not able to have any radiology exams done to her that use a magnet, as the implants could get pulled out of her ears. (They are surgically inserted.) How might the system help to notify the physician when he or she is ordering radiology exams on this type of patient? Additionally, is there any way to leverage the radiology system to let the radiology technician know of the potential issue with the implants?

Clinical decision support tools and explanation

Medical professionals are able to input information about patients. Therefore that information will be updated in CPOE which will prompt alerts if another physician inputs an order to have radiology exam an alert will pop up.

Scenario 4

HIV is a serious infectious disease that must be reported to the state as soon as it is identified to prevent exposure and understand the incidence of the disease. How might the EHR help to communicate this to the government more rapidly? Consider how the system might share ranges of values across institutions.

Clinical decision support tools and explanation

I would choose to use a Drug/Drug Interaction tool, so we would be aware when there could be a severe reaction when a patient is prescribed both DRUGx and INTERAx. This tool would notify the appropriate individuals when someone wanted to prescribe both of these medications to a patient. I would have it alert the physician as soon as he or she entered the order in CPOE so they could have an opportunity to select another drug that would be appropriate for the patient. NURS 3015 Assignments – Pathopharmacology Essays

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